By Michio Kaku, from his book, Hyperspace, Oxford University Press, 1994, page 212
"Now we continue to heat it past 3,000 degrees K, until the atoms of hydrogen
and oxygen are ripped apart. The electrons are pulled from the nucleus, and
we now have a plasma (an ionized gas), often called the fourth state of
matter (after gases, liquids, and solids). Although a plasma is not part of
common experience, we can see it every time we look at the sun. In fact, plasma is the most common state of matter in the universe.
"If we heat the ice cube on the stove, first
it melts and turns into water; that is, it
undergoes a phase transition. [or turning
point] Now let us heat the water until it
boils. It then undergoes another phase
transition and turns into steam. Now continue
to heat the steam to enormous temperatures. Eventually,
the water molecules break up. The energy of the molecules
exceeds the binding energy of the molecules, which are ripped
apart into elemental hydrogen and oxygen gas.
"Now continue to heat the plasma on the stove to 1 billion degrees K, until the nuclei of hydrogen an oxygen are ripped apart, and we have a "gas" of individual neutrons and protons, similar to the interior of a neutron star.
"If we heat the gas of nucleons even further to 10 trillion degrees K, these subatomic particles will turn into disassociated quarks. We will now have a gas of quarks and leptons (the electrons and neutrinos).
"If we heat this gas to 1 quadrillion degrees K, the electromagnetic force
and the weak force will become united. The symmetery SU(2) x U(1) will emerge
at this temperature. At 1028 degrees K, the electroweak and strong forces
become united, and the GIT symmetries [SU(5),O(10), or E(6)] appear.
"Finally at a fabulous 1032 degrees
K, gravity unites with the Grand Unified Theory
force, and all the symmetries of the
ten-dimensional superstring appear.
We now have a gas of superstrings.
At that point, so much energy will have gone
into the pressure cooker that the geometry of
space-time may very well begin to distort, and
the dimensionality of space-time may change.
The space around our kitchen may very well become
unstable, a rip may form in the fabric of space,
and a wormhole may appear in the kitchen. At
this point, it may be advisable to leave the kitchen."
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